During the past twenty years researchers have made exciting progress in the science of learning (i.e., how people learn) and the science of instruction (i.e., how to help people learn). This Handbook examines learning and instruction in a variety of classroom and non-classroom environments and with a variety of learners, both K-16 students and adult learners. The chapters are written by leading researchers from around the world, all of whom are highly regarded experts on their particular topics.
The book is divided into two sections: learning and instruction. The learning section consists of chapters on how people learn in reading, writing, mathematics, science, history, second languages, and physical education, as well as learning to think critically, learning to self-monitor, and learning with motivation. The instruction section consists of chapters on effective instructional methods – feedback, examples, self-explanation, peer interaction, cooperative learning, inquiry, discussion, tutoring, visualizations, and computer simulations. Each chapter reviews empirical research in a specific domain and is structured as follows:
- Introduction – Defines key constructs and provides illustrative examples or cases.
- Historical Overview – Summarizes the historical context for the topic or domain.
- Theoretical Framework – Summarizes major models or theories related to the topic or domain.
- Current Trends and Issues – Synthesizes the research literature and highlights key findings or conclusions.
- Practical Implications – Suggests relevance of the research for educational practice.
- Future Directions – Considers next steps or stages needed for future research.